Khoslas Applied Research Foundation



Mushroom is important not only from a nutritional and medicinal point of view but also for export. It requires little space or land. Mushroom production has tremendous potential as an income generating activity. It grows independent of sunlight, feeds on organic matter and does not require fertile soil. In addition to the floor, air space is also utilised resulting in higher productivity. Mushroom cultivation can provide additional income to farmers who wish to take up this activity especially in their lean season.

Mushrooms are a fungal body. It depends upon other living or dead plants to obtain food. Mushroom is an excellent source of protein, vitamins, minerals, folic acid and is a good source of iron for anemic patients. Mushrooms contain 19 to 35 percent protein which is higher than most vegetables and cereals. Its protein quality is as good as animal protein.


Most common type of mushroom cultivated in India

  1. Button mushroom
  2. Oyster mushroom
  3. Milky mushroom

How to start a mushroom farming business?

Four steps to begin with mushroom farming business;

  • Finding/creating a Mushroom House
  • Purchasing Spawns & Disinfection of Mushroom house
  • Spawning & Disinfection of compost
  • Marketing

Cost and Profit Analysis of Mushroom Farming

  • Button mushrooms have a total yield of 10 to 15 kilograms per square foot.
  • The yield per 250 square feet is approximately 2,500 kilograms.
  • In the market, the cost of a kg of button mushroom is around ₹140-₹165.(can vary according to the market).
  • The total cost of 2,500 kgs of button mushroom at ₹140 is now ₹3,50,000.
  • Mushroom farming has a total recurring cost of ₹1,60,000.
  • Mushroom farming generates a net profit of ₹1,90,000 per year.

2. Flower business

Mushrooms are a fungal body. It depends upon other living or dead plants to obtain food. Mushroom is an excellent source of protein, vitamins, minerals, folic acid and is a good source of iron for anemic patients. Mushrooms contain 19 to 35 percent protein which is higher than most vegetables and cereals. Its protein quality is as good as animal protein.

  • The demand for flowering plants and their products, such as bouquets, garlands, and value-added products like dry flowers and potpourris is increasing by the day. They are required in several functions and celebrations.
  • The diverse agro-climatic conditions in the country enable the growth of all types of flowers in one season or the other seasons.
Landscaping has become an integral component of urban horticulture, which apart from adding aesthetic value to a place, protects the environment, reduces air and also noise pollution, and promotes ecotourism.

Costing for your floriculture business:

You need to do a cost-benefit analysis which helps you to know the money required to set up the business. Try not to do unnecessary expenses. You can start your business with the cost of rupees 30,000. A flower from the farm costs up to 2 – 3 rs. whereas its international value is more than 6 rs. The requirement of flowers comes from 15000 to 20000 per week. Hence even if you manage to get a client, you can earn more than 45000 per week, depending on the clients.

Flower Farming Business Ideas in India


Ageratum plant is a fast-growing annual plant. Caring for the ageratum plant includes regular watering until the plant is established. With successive plantings, it can produce continuous blooms from early summer to frost. Make sure soil drains well and don’t let the soil dry out either. Ageratum plants quickly wilt if conditions are too dry.


Growing alstroemeria plants is easy and does not need much time or effort. You can find at least 50 species of alstroemeria around the globe. Alstroemeria flowers have no fragrance and it has a vase life of about two weeks. The alstroemeria plant needs full sun and well-drained soil for farming.


Carnation is popular as “The Flowers of God”. The flower comes in numerous colours. You can grow carnations from cuttings. Also, the flowers need some hours of full sun each day. Keep the soil in moist condition. However, avoid overwatering the plant. The plants grow in an area that gets 4 to 6 hours of sunlight per day.


Gerberas come in different colours. Also, it is one of the most popular cut flowers globally and the flower has a long vase life. The most inexpensive method to produce gerberas is from seed. However, you should obtain the seed from reputed seed suppliers. Gerbera. plants are perennials and do best in full sun, in well-drained soil. If soil is poorly drained, grow the plants in a raised garden bed.


The scientific name of jasmine is Jasminum and the flower belongs to the Oleaceae family: You can find several fresh flower usages like making garlands, bouquets, decorating hair of women, and religious offerings, etc. Well-drained, rich loamy soil with a pH level from 65-75 is ideal for their cultivation; it prefers a mild and tropical climate Jasmine is commercially cultivated in India under open field conditions.


Rose is a perennial shrub or vine of the Rosa genus and the family Rosacea.The rose grows well in the plains under the ideal condition of fertile loamy soils with salt-free irrigation water.You can harvest the flowers at the tight bud stage when the colour is fully developed.


Sunflowers are the early-blooming varieties with less than 60 days to harvest and are popular market sellers. Sunflower plants grow well in the soil with lots of water holding capacity, drainage, and fertiliser.


Organic farming is a method of crop and livestock production that involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones.

Organic production is a holistic system designed to optimize the productivity and fitness of diverse communities within the agro-ecosystem, including soil organisms, plants, livestock and people. The principal goal of organic production is to develop enterprises that are sustainable and harmonious with the environment.

The general principles of organic production are

  1. protect the environment, minimize soil degradation and erosion, decrease pollution, optimize biological productivity and promote a sound state of health
  2. maintain long-term soil fertility by optimizing conditions for biological activity within the soil
  3. maintain biological diversity within the system
  4. recycle materials and resources to the greatest extent possible within the enterprise
  5. provide attentive care that promotes the health and meets the behavioural needs of livestock
  6. prepare organic products, emphasizing careful processing, and handling methods in order to maintain the organic integrity and vital qualities of the products at all stages of production

Organic farming promotes the use of crop rotations and cover crops, and encourages balanced host/predator relationships. Organic residues and nutrients produced on the farm are recycled back to the soil. Cover crops and composted manure are used to maintain soil organic matter and fertility. Preventative insect and disease control methods are practised, including crop rotation, improved genetics and resistant varieties. Integrated pest and weed management, and soil conservation systems are valuable tools on an organic farm.

The organic standards generally prohibit products of genetic engineering and animal cloning, synthetic pesticides, synthetic fertilisers, sewage sludge, synthetic drugs, synthetic food processing aids and ingredients, and ionising radiation. Prohibited products and practices must not be used on certified organic farms for at least three years prior to harvest of the certified organic products. Livestock must be raised organically and fed 100 percent organic feed ingredients.

Organic farming presents many challenges. Some crops are more challenging than others to grow organically; however, nearly every commodity can be produced organically.

Why Farm Organically?

The main reasons farmers state for wanting to farm organically are their concerns for the environment and about working with agricultural chemicals in conventional farming systems. There is also an issue with the amount of energy used in agriculture, since many farm chemicals require energy intensive manufacturing processes that rely heavily on fossil fuels. Organic farmers find their method of farming to be profitable and personally rewarding.

Organic Farming Certification

At present in India the growing demand for organic produce is gradually increasing and consumers are looking for the certified products for trusting quality of organic produce. At present in India two types of certification system exists namely
  1. Third Party certification (NPOP) system which is governed by APEDA, Ministry of Commerce which is mainly focused for export purpose and
  2. PGS-INDIA certification system.

PGS-India is governed by Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare mainly focused for local / domestic market purpose.

The third party certification bears high fees and more documentation as a result small and marginal farmers are not able to offer certification. To make it more easy, affordable and simplest system of certification which can be accessible by more number of small and marginal farmers to adopt certification and further sale in domestic market, Participatory Guarantee System (PGS)-INDIA organic certification system was launched in 2011 by Department of Agriculture and Cooperation & Farmers Welfare, Government of India, it is an alternative to Third party (NPOP) certification system.

The programme is implemented mainly through National Centre of Organic Farming (NCOF), Ghaziabad and its five Regional Centres (Ghaziabad (HQ), Bangalore, Nagpur, Bhubaneswar, Imphal, as Zonal Councils. NCOF is a PGS-INDIA Secretariat of the PGS-INDIA System, and Director, NCOF as the Executive Secretary and has to play an important role in implementation of all activities of PGS- INDIA programme as per the PGS guidelines.( source: )

4) Hydroponics farming

Ever since humans largely switched from nomadic lifestyles to more stationary, agrarian ones, they have experimented with new ways of growing food. One of the biggest advancements in agriculture was the discovery that plants don’t actually need soil to grow. In fact, growing can be made possible through the use of hydroponic systems. With hydroponics, plants get all the nutrients they need without having their roots encased in dirt. Hydroponic plants are often cultivated without a soil-like growing medium.

What is Hydroponics?

At its most basic level, hydroponics is when plants are grown in a nutrient solution rather than soil. Instead of the roots growing down into dirt and gaining nutrients that way, in a hydroponic system, the roots grow into a liquid solution that is fortified with all the essential nutrients for healthy plants.

While it is possible to grow plants hydroponically outside, the vast majority of hydroponic systems are used in greenhouses or other indoor spaces. There are many small, commercially available hydroponic systems that people can use to grow hydroponic plants in their homes.

Hydroponic Farming One Time Setup Cost

  • Polyhouse shelter- 600000 INR
  • NFT system
  1. Pipes(4 inches)- 700000 INR
  2. Pipes(2 inches)- 12000 INR
  3. Pipe connectors- 120000 INR
  • Stand platform(hold 32 pipes each)- 100000 INR (40 Stands)
  • Tank(20000-liters)- 55000 INR
  • Plastic tank(1000 liter)- 15000 INR(2 tanks)
  • Plastic tank(5000 liters)- 22000 INR
  • Water pump(1-HP)- 30000 INR(4 Pumps)(Types of irrigation pumps)
  • Water pump(0.5-HP)- 10000 INR(2 pumps)
  • Net cups- 100000 INR(20000 plus)
  • Water cooler- 60000 INR
  • RO system- 50000 INR
  • pH meter- 1200 INR
  • TDS meter- 2000 INR
  • Labor cost- 10000 INR

Total one time cost- 1887200 to 2000000 INR

Hydroponic Farming Per Cycle Cost

Considering, the hydroponic farming system give yield every month. So following is per cycle cost in hydroponic farming-

  • Electricity- 15000 INR/month
  • Seeds- 20000 INR/month
  • Fertilizers- 20000 INR/month
  • Labor- 10000 INR/month
  • Maintenance- 5000 INR/month
  • Packing and transportation- 10000 INR/month

Per cycle cost- 80000 INR

Hydroponic Farming Profit in India

On a 5000 square feet area, the following are the outcomes in one-time yield of crops like lattice-

  • Total production- 3200 kg
  • Waste- 1000 kg
  • Total left- 2200 kg
  • Value in market- 350 INR/kg
  • Value of yield- 770000 INR
Profit margin in India
Profit margin= Total earning per cycle- per cycle investment
Profit margin= 7,70,000 – 80,000 = 6,90,000 INR/cycle
The margin of profit- 6,90,000 INR/cycle

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